Pediatric urology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract and genital problems in children. Pediatric urologists are doctors who have received
specialized training in urology and have additional expertise in treating urological conditions specific to infants, children, and adolescents.

Pediatric urologists are equipped to address a wide range of conditions involving the urinary system, including the kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra, and genitalia. Some common areas of focus within pediatric urology include:

1- Congenital anomalies: Pediatric urologists diagnose and treat congenital (present from birth) urological abnormalities, such as kidney malformations, urinary tract obstructions, undescended testes, hypospadias (abnormal positioning of the urethral opening), and other structural abnormalities.

2- Urinary tract infections: Pediatric urologists evaluate and manage urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. They may investigate underlying causes of recurrent UTIs and develop treatment plans to prevent their recurrence.

3- Voiding dysfunction: Pediatric urologists address issues related to urinary incontinence, urinary urgency, frequency, and other voiding difficulties in children. They assess the underlying causes and provide appropriate treatments, including behavioral modifications, medications, and bladder training.

4- Bedwetting (enuresis): Pediatric urologists help manage bedwetting, also known as nocturnal enuresis, which involves involuntary urination during sleep. They explore potential underlying factors and develop treatment strategies to help children overcome bedwetting.

5- Genital and reproductive conditions: Pediatric urologists diagnose and treat conditions affecting the genitals and reproductive system in children, including undescended testes, hernias, hydroceles, ambiguous genitalia, and other disorders of sexual development.

6- Hydronephrosis: Pediatric urologists evaluate and manage hydronephrosis, a condition characterized by the dilation or swelling of the kidneys due to an obstruction in the urinary system. They determine the underlying cause and provide appropriate treatment, which may include surgical intervention if necessary.

7- Urological trauma: Pediatric urologists are skilled in managing urological injuries and trauma in children, such as bladder or kidney injuries resulting from accidents or physical trauma.

8- Minimally invasive surgery: Pediatric urologists are experienced in performing minimally invasive surgical procedures, such as laparoscopy or endoscopy, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. These techniques often result in smaller incisions, faster recovery times, and reduced post-operative complications.

Pediatric urologists work closely with other healthcare professionals, including pediatricians, nephrologists (kidney specialists), radiologists, and geneticists, to provide comprehensive care for children with urological conditions. They aim to ensure optimal urinary and reproductive health in pediatric patients, promoting their overall well-being and quality of life.